DEFINITION Texts; (* portable *)

(* The Texts module implements the text abstract data type. Texts are sequences
characters and objects, with different colors, different fonts, and vertical
 IMPORT Files, Objects, Display;

    (* Scanner symbol classes.*)
  Inval = 0;           (* Invalid symbol. *)
  Name = 1;        (* Name s (of length len).*)
  String = 2;        (* Quoted string s (length len). *)
  Int = 3;             (* Integer i (decimal or hexadecimal). *)
  Real = 4;          (* Real number x. *)
  LongReal = 5;  (* Long real number y. *)
  Char = 6;          (* Special character c. *)
  Object = 7;      (* Object obj. *)

  Text = POINTER TO TextDesc;
  TextDesc = RECORD ( Objects.ObjDesc ) 
   len: LONGINT; (* Text consists of characters 0 to T.len - 1. *)

  UpdateMsg = RECORD ( Display.FrameMsg )  (* Message broadcast to indicate
that part of a text changed. *)
   text: Text; (* The text that changed. *)
   beg, end, len: LONGINT (* Change location. *)

  Finder = RECORD (* Finder of (non-character) objects located in text. *)
   eot: BOOLEAN; (* End-of-text reached during search. *)
   pos: LONGINT; (* Offset of Finder in text. *)

  Reader = RECORD (* Character-wise reader of a text stream. *)
   lib: Objects.Library; (* Library of last character/object read. *)
   col: SHORTINT; (* Color index of last character read. *)
   voff: SHORTINT; (* vertical offset of last character read. *)
   eot: BOOLEAN (* Reader has reached end of the text stream. *)

  Scanner = RECORD ( Reader )  (* Scanner for symbol streams. *)
   nextCh: CHAR; (* Character immediately following the last symbol scanned.
   line: INTEGER; (* # carriage returns scanned so far. *)
   class: INTEGER; (* Scan result: Int, Real, String etc. *)
   i: LONGINT;
   x: REAL;
   c: CHAR;
   len: SHORTINT; (* Length of name or string scanned. *)
   s: ARRAY 64 OF CHAR;
   obj: Objects.Object

  Buffer = POINTER TO BufDesc; (* Temporary container of text stretches. *)
  BufDesc = RECORD
   len: LONGINT; (* # characters in buffer. *)

  Writer = RECORD (* Used to write a stream of textual data in a buffer. *)
   buf: Buffer; (* Associated buffer. *)
   lib: Objects.Library; (* Current font/library of characters written. *)
   col: SHORTINT; (* Current color of text being written. *)
   voff: SHORTINT (* Current vertical offset of text being written. *)

 VAR  (* First character of a text block. *)
  TextBlockId: CHAR;

(* Load text block from ASCII file f to text T. *)
 PROCEDURE LoadAscii (T: Text; f: Files.File);

(* Load text block from file f at position pos to text T (assumes that the text
id has been read already). len returns length. *)
 PROCEDURE Load (T: Text; f: Files.File; pos: LONGINT; VAR len: LONGINT);

(* Store text T on disk file f at position pos. Writes the first id character
too. len is the number of bytes written. *)
 PROCEDURE Store (T: Text; f: Files.File; pos: LONGINT; VAR len: LONGINT);

(* Open text T from file specified by name. A new text is opened when name =
"". *)
 PROCEDURE Open (T: Text; name: ARRAY OF CHAR);

(* Text generator procedure. Resulting text is assigned to Objects.NewObj. *)

(* Insert buffer B in text T position pos. B is emptied. *)
 PROCEDURE Insert (T: Text; pos: LONGINT; B: Buffer);

(* Append buffer to the end of text T. B is emptied. *)
 PROCEDURE Append (T: Text; B: Buffer);

(* Delete text stretch [beg, end[. *)
 PROCEDURE Delete (T: Text; beg, end: LONGINT);

(* Replace [beg, end[ of T with contents of buffer B. B is emptied. *)
 PROCEDURE Replace (T: Text; beg, end: LONGINT; B: Buffer);

(* Change character attributes within stretch [beg, end[ of text T. sel selects
the attributes to be changed: 0, 1, 2 IN sel = fnt, col, voff selected. *)
 PROCEDURE ChangeLooks (T: Text; beg, end: LONGINT; sel: SET; lib: Objects.Library; col, voff: SHORTINT);

(* Open a new text buffer B. *)
 PROCEDURE OpenBuf (B: Buffer);

(* Save stretch [beg, end[ of T in buffer B. *)
 PROCEDURE Save (T: Text; beg, end: LONGINT; B: Buffer);

(* Append copy of source buffer SB to destination buffer DB. *)
 PROCEDURE Copy (SB, DB: Buffer);

(* Recall previously deleted text. *)
 PROCEDURE Recall (VAR B: Buffer);

(* Default handler for text objects. This handler understands Objects.AttrMsg(for
Gen attribute), Objects.CopyMsg, Objects.BindMsg, and Objects.FileMsg only.
 PROCEDURE Handle (obj: Objects.Object; VAR M: Objects.ObjMsg);

(* Open Finder at position pos in T. The finder is automatically advanced to
the next object in text. *)
 PROCEDURE OpenFinder (VAR F: Finder; T: Text; pos: LONGINT);

  (* Advance Finder to next object in text and return current object. *)
 PROCEDURE FindObj (VAR F: Finder; VAR obj: Objects.Object);

(* Open text reader R and set it up at position pos in text T. *)
 PROCEDURE OpenReader (VAR R: Reader; T: Text; pos: LONGINT);

(* Read next character into ch. R.eot is set when the last character is read.
The fields lib, voff and col of R give 
information about the last character read. *)
 PROCEDURE Read (VAR R: Reader; VAR ch: CHAR);

(* Return reader's position within the text. *)

(* Open text scanner S and set it up at position pos in text T. *)
 PROCEDURE OpenScanner (VAR S: Scanner; T: Text; pos: LONGINT);

(* Read the next symbol. Whitespace is ignored. CR increments the line counter.
 PROCEDURE Scan (VAR S: Scanner);

(* Open a new writer W. *)
 PROCEDURE OpenWriter (VAR W: Writer);

(* Set writer W to font fnt. *)
 PROCEDURE SetFont (VAR W: Writer; fnt: Objects.Library);

(* Set writer W to color col. *)
 PROCEDURE SetColor (VAR W: Writer; col: SHORTINT);

(* Set writer W to vertical offset voff. Vertical offset controls the writing
of super- and sub-scripts. *)
 PROCEDURE SetOffset (VAR W: Writer; voff: SHORTINT);

(* Write character ch to writer W's buffer. *)
 PROCEDURE Write (VAR W: Writer; ch: CHAR);

(* Write an end-of-line character to W's buffer. *)
 PROCEDURE WriteLn (VAR W: Writer);

(* Write string s to W's buffer. *)
 PROCEDURE WriteString (VAR W: Writer; s: ARRAY OF CHAR);

(* Write integer x to W's buffer. Spaces are padded to the left until the number
field is at least n characters long. *)
 PROCEDURE WriteInt (VAR W: Writer; x, n: LONGINT);

(* Write a hexadecimal representation of x to W's buffer. *)
 PROCEDURE WriteHex (VAR W: Writer; x: LONGINT);

(* Write the hexadecimal representation of x to W's buffer. *)
 PROCEDURE WriteRealHex (VAR W: Writer; x: REAL);

(* Write the hexadecimal representation of x to W's buffer. *)
 PROCEDURE WriteLongRealHex (VAR W: Writer; x: LONGREAL);

(* Write real x to W's buffer using n character positions. *)
 PROCEDURE WriteReal (VAR W: Writer; x: REAL; n: LONGINT);

(* Write real x in a fixed point notation. n is the overall minimal length for
the output field, 
f the number of fraction digits following the decimal point, E the fixed exponent
(printed only 
when E # 0). *)
 PROCEDURE WriteRealFix (VAR W: Writer; x: REAL; n, f, E: LONGINT);

(* Write LONGREAL x to W's buffer using n character positions. *)
 PROCEDURE WriteLongReal (VAR W: Writer; x: LONGREAL; n: LONGINT);

(* Write LONGREAL x in a fixed point notation. n is the overall minimal length
for the output field, f the number of fraction digits following the decimal
point, D the fixed exponent (printed only when D # 0). *)
 PROCEDURE WriteLongRealFix (VAR W: Writer; x: LONGREAL; n, f, D: LONGINT);

(* Write the time and date to W's buffer. *)
 PROCEDURE WriteDate (VAR W: Writer; t, d: LONGINT);

(* Write a SET value to writer W. *)
 PROCEDURE WriteSet (VAR W: Writer; s: SET);

(* Write obj to writer W. *)
 PROCEDURE WriteObj (VAR W: Writer; obj: Objects.Object);
END Texts.

(* Remarks:

1. Text streams consists of sequence of characters (type Fonts.Char) and and

non-character objects (in different colors, fonts, and vertical offsets). The
way to distinguish between a character and an object in the text stream is by

fetching the character/object from its library and then making a type test.

The library of a character/object is given by the lib field of the reader while

advancing through a text stream. The reference number of a character/object

is the ordinal number of the character read (i.e. ORD(ch)). As character objects

are bound to character fonts (Fonts.Font), a quick type test of the Reader lib

field against Fonts.Font also settles the question. Non-character objects of
text are typically bound to the obs library field of the text descriptor.

2. The non-character objects of a text stream must have reference numbers 
in the range 0 <= ref < 256, and must be bound to a library (not necessarily

obs of the text descriptor). Writing non-character objects involves binding
to a library (say T.obs), changing the font of the Writer, and the writing the

reference number of the non-character object into the writer's buffer. 
Afterwards the writer font is reset to its old value. More that 256 non-character

objects can be written into the text by allocating a new library when the old

library is full, and attaching it to the obs field of the text descriptor. The
obs field 
just acts as a placeholder for libraries and is not used by the texts directly.

3. There are two mechanisms to read from a text and one to write to a text.

The Readers allow characterwise reading from a certain text position onwards.

The Scanners allow reading of formatted tokens like names, strings, numbers
characters. Writers are used to write characters into temporary holding areas

called buffers. Buffers contains large sequences of objects (both character
non-character) and allow low-level temporary manipulation. The difference 
between texts and buffers involve the display update operations. Each text can

possibly be represented on the display by some kind of text editor or viewer.

When a module manipulates a text, a message called the UpdateMsg (type 
Texts.UpdateMsg) is broadcast to all viewers or text editors representing the
They then update their representation accordingly. To prevent broadcasts being

sent for potentially each character being written into a text, the text manipulation

is first done in a buffer. Operations on buffers do not result in update messages

being broadcasted. Only when a buffer is applied to a text (inserted or appended),

the texts broadcasts an update message. By convention, once a buffer is applied
to a text, its contents is emptied.

4. The scanner classes indicate what token was scanned. The scanner understands
the following token types:

 Name Longest sequence starting with "A".."Z", "a".."z", ".", "/", and containing

  "A".."Z", "a".."z", "0".."9", "@", ".", "/", ":", "_", 80X..96X
 String Any character sequence surrounded by double quotes, i.e. "string".
  The quotes are not returned in the s field of the scanner descriptor.
 Int Any valid integer number.
 Real Any valid REAL number, including exponent E.
 LongReal Any valid LONGREAL number, including exponent D.
 Char A character (single) not classified as one of the above.
5. The end of line character is carriage return (CR or 0DX), tabulators are
Unprintable characters are show on the display as smallish square boxes.

6. Vertical offsets are typically measured in screen pixels (positive or negative

to the text base line).

7. The Finder allow quick searching for non-character objects in a text. 

8. The meaning of the UpdateMsg fields are defined as in the following table

listed according to the procedures that broadcast the message. Note that a text

stretch identified by (beg, end) does not include the character at position
in the text. Below, M is of type Texts.UpdateMsg and B stands for a buffer.

 Delete(beg, end) M.beg = beg
  M.end = end
  M.len = 0
 Replace(beg, end, B) M.beg = beg
  M.end = end
  M.len = B.len
 ChangeLooks(beg, end) M.beg = beg
  M.end = end
  M.len = end - beg
 Insert(pos, buf) M.beg = pos
  M.end = pos
  M.len = B.len
The general scheme is that the stretch between M.beg and M.end was "deleted",

and a new stretch of length M.len was inserted at M.beg. The message indicates

a change AFTER it has already been made by the texts module.

9. There is an asymmetry in writing and reading texts to a file. Each text "block"

in a file is identified by a first character. Reading a text block requires
that the 
starting position does not include this character, while writing a text block
the id character automatically.

10. Opening of non-text files is allowed with Texts.Open; they are simply converted

to ASCII streams. Storing such an opened text will convert it into an Oberon
Note that the EditTools package allows the manipulation of ASCII texts both
MSDOS and UNIX format.